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How to Achieve the 17 Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations
"(note: this is a copy of an official UK government speech, the direct link to the original PDF is below. Additional links in text were added later and are not from the original UK government source)

巴黎2015:达成全球气候变化协议方能永葆繁荣—气候变化大臣爱德华•戴维讲话

Paris 2015: Securing our Prosperity through a Global Climate Change Agreement- Speech by UK Climate Change Secretary Edward Davey

15个月之内,世界将汇聚巴黎,确保囊括各国减排承诺、具有法律约束力的全球气候变化协议出台。如果巴黎磋商失败,可以预见我们将气候变化限制在可控范围内的机会在减少,并且行动成本在上升。
In 15 months time, the world will gather in Paris to secure a new legally binding global climate change agreement with emissions reductions commitments from all countries. Failure in Paris would see our chances of limiting climate change to manageable levels go down and the costs of doing so go up.

到2020年,全球温室气体排放将缺乏最具成本效益的、保持气候变化控制在温升2摄氏度以内的道路,这是科学家们判断的避免灾难性影响的需求。如果我们不在巴黎达成协议,每过一年,对所需行动的要求将越来越高;经济成本也会越来越高。
Global emissions are on track to be, by 2020, someway short of the most cost effective pathway for keeping climate change to below the 2 degree rise the scientists judge is needed to avoid the most catastrophic effects. And if we do not reach agreement in Paris the vector of action needed becomes increasingly steep with each passing year; and the economic cost increasingly expensive.

因此,从现在开始到彼时,我们必须开展一切力所能及的行动,以期促成在巴黎达成一项宏伟协议。
So everything we can humanly do between now and then to make an ambitious agreement in Paris possible must be done.

对英国而言,来自气候变化的直接影响可能是洪水以及公共服务中断。但我们也是一个开放的贸易国家,英国的繁荣与世界市场密不可分。世界其他地方更频繁的极端气候变化影响——从食物匮乏和饮用水短缺,到逃离最坏情况的大规模人口迁徙,这些也是我们的问题,也将会让我们付出代价。
For the UK, the main direct risks from climate change are likely to come from flooding and disruption of services. But we are also an open trading nation and our prosperity is inextricably linked to world markets. More extreme climate change impacts in other parts of the world – from food and water shortages – to the mass migration of people fleeing the worst effects – these are our problem too. And they will cost us.

众所周知,只有那些铁石心肠和冷酷无情的人才愿意用他们后代的未来作赌注。即使是略知风险管理的人,也没人认为袖手旁观会是良策。
Only those with the hardest hearts and the meanest minds would be prepared to gamble their children’s future given what we already know. Nobody with even the most rudimentary understanding of managing risk would conclude that doing nothing is an option.

只要世界各国政府、全球企业以及世界人民的行动拧成一股绳,解决共同问题,就能为世界的未来树立榜样。
The mere act of the Governments of the world, the businesses of the world, the people of the world coming together as one to tackle a shared problem, would set an example for the future.

如果我们有意愿,我们就能携手一致,能够克服最复杂、最严峻的问题。我们国内的一致目标关乎国内政治与公民社会,以及我们的商界。并且世界各国中与我们目标一致的趋势日益明显——包括美国、中国、印度以及欧洲在内的主要高碳经济体。
That we can unite – and we can overcome the most complex and demanding of problems. If we have the will. And that is unity of purpose. Unity of purpose here at home is in our domestic politics and civil society – and increasingly our business community. And the same unity of purpose is increasingly evident in many countries across the world – including the key heavy carbon economies of the US, China, India and here in Europe.

国际形势 International momentum
这是关键要素第一次全部到位,这给予我们达成实质性全球协议一个真正的机会。在2009年哥本哈根会议上,很多人认为这股形势已去,随之而去的还有国际化进程的信念。但在过去几年中,这一形势已经完全转变。
For the very first time we have the key ingredients in place that give us a real chance of a truly global deal. In 2009, at Copenhagen many felt that momentum was lost – and with that faith in the international process. But over the past few years, momentum has shifted decisively.

如果具有法律约束力的国际协议是自上而下的要求,以提供稳定、可靠以及建立在公平规则之上的框架。我们看到越来越多的是自下而上的气候变化行动——随着国家增加气候变化立法、推广碳定价机制以及引入新政策与法规。
If a legally binding international agreement is the top-down requirement – to provide stability, certainty and an equitable rules-based framework. What we are seeing, increasingly, is bottom up climate change action – with national climate change legislation proliferating, carbon pricing mechanisms spreading and new policies and regulations being introduced.

世界上碳排放量最大的66个国家,已经通过了近500部气候法。并且不是只有富裕的工业化国家在采取行动。
Almost 500 climate laws have been passed in 66 of the world’s largest emitting countries. And it’s not just the rich industrialised nations taking action.

仅去年一年,玻利维亚、萨尔瓦多、危地马拉、肯尼亚、莫桑比克和尼日利亚就通过了气候变化立法。墨西哥已遵循英国的实例,建立了一个包含中长期目标的全面气候变化法案。
Last year alone Bolivia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Kenya, Mozambique and Nigeria passed climate change legislation. Mexico has followed the UK’s example and put in place a comprehensive climate change law, with medium and long term targets.

碳交易市场,可以降低减排成本,现已在40多个国家落实到位,并且正在地方层面推广。国家、州、地方政府正在采取行动。
Carbon markets – which can reduce the cost of emissions reduction – have now been put in place in over 40 countries – and it is happening at sub-national level as well – counties, states, local governments are acting.

同样,越来越多的企业在新兴的全球绿色市场看到了机会,一个价值数万亿英镑且不断增长的市场。在可再生能源方面的投资已经连续四年超过化石燃料方面。当然也有令人遗憾的退步例子,例如加拿大,以及来自澳大利亚的堪忧信号,以及更容易理解的——日本。
And business is increasingly seeing the opportunity too of a burgeoning global green marketplace that is worth trillions of pounds and growing all the time. Investment in renewables has outpaced investment in fossil fuels for the fourth year running. Of course there are regrettable examples of backsliding – from Canada for instance – and worrying signals from Australia and, more understandably, Japan.

我们将与这些国家开展建设性的合作,吸引他们重新回到其它主要经济体的步调中来。他们在新的全球协议中的目标是他们重回正确道路的机会。但实际情况瞬息万变——使得达成全球协议迫在眉睫。
And we will work constructively with these countries to draw them back into step with the other major economies. Their targets in the new global deal is the opportunity for them to do so. But the facts on the ground are changing – and this is putting a global deal within reach.

四大经济体 The big four
在中国,习近平主席一直奉行其生态文明的愿景,缓和人类对地球的影响。该愿景将气候行动写入国家规划之中,并且针对官员和企业无视环保法律的行为建立了严厉的制裁手段。而且中国已对煤炭消费量设定严格的目标。中国正努力为其能源需求去碳化,并已成为世界上最大的非化石燃料能源生产国,并且还是地方层面碳市场的全球引领者之一。
In China, President Xi Jinping has been pursuing his vision of ecological civilization that softens its tread upon the earth. The vision embeds climate action in its national planning process and created tough sanctions for officials and companies flouting environmental legislation. And China has set tough new targets for coal consumption. China is working to decarbonise its energy demand and is already the world’s largest non-fossil fuel energy producer. And is one of the world’s leaders on sub-national carbon markets.

在美国,自1990年京都以来,很多人都视美国为问题的一部分,而非解决问题的一部分。但美国许多州已经采取行动,而此前联邦政府却无所作为。超过20个州已拥有各自的节能目标,并且超过30个州设立了可再生能源目标。而现在,在奥巴马总统的努力下,《气候行动计划2013》应该能使美国重回正轨,这其中包括为发电厂制定强有力的排放法规,以填补国家层面的差距。
And in the US, since Kyoto in 1990, many have seen the United States as part of the problem rather than the solution. But many US states have been acting where Federal Government has previously not done so. More than 20 states have energy efficiency targets and over 30 have set renewable energy targets. And now under President Obama, the Climate Action Plan of 2013 should enable the US to get back on track, including by proposing robust emissions regulations for power plants, so filling the gap at the national level.

历史上,欧盟一直是全球领先的气候变化行动倡导者之一,并且没有辜负自己的信誉,超额完成了其京都的责任——到2020年温室气体排放量降低20%以上。欧洲面临的挑战是保持其进度,尽管欧元区存在明显的经济问题。
Historically the EU has been one of the world’s leading advocates of climate change action. And has been living up to its reputation by exceeding its Kyoto obligations with emissions set to reduce by more than 20% by 2020. The challenge for Europe is to maintain its course, despite the obvious economic problems in the Euro Zone.

已成立的绿色增长集团I (Green Growth Group I),现拥有13个成员国,代表了75%的欧洲人口,85%的欧洲GDP以及欧盟部长理事会60%的投票,以期就低碳、促进增长的政策立场达成共识,从而形成巴黎大会上强有力的谈判立场。并且下个月,欧盟开会同意新的2030能源框架时,我们将在一项宏伟的协议中看到努力的成果——欧盟境内温室气体排放量降低至少40%的目标。
The Green Growth Group I set up to build consensus around a low-carbon, pro-growth policy position and consequently a strong negotiating position for Paris, now boasts 13 member states representing 75% of Europe’s population, 85% of Europe’s GDP and 60% of the votes in the Council of Ministers. And next month, when the EU meets to agree the new 2030 Energy Framework, we will see the fruits of that effort in an ambitious deal for a domestic greenhouse gas target of at least 40%.

因此,印度、中国、美国和欧盟都在其国家和区域政策中表明了我们需要在巴黎正式化的行动。
So India, China, US and the EU are all demonstrating in their national and regional policies, the kind of action we need to formalise in Paris.

国内行动 Action at home
英国在帮助塑造切实有效的气候变化架构方面处于前列。
The UK has been at the forefront of helping to shape the right kind of climate change architecture that can work.

2008年的《气候变化法案》是世界上首个长期、具有法律约束力的减排国家框架。我们的五年碳预算——最终将持续至2050年,被视为其他国家参考的潜在模式。2013年的《能源法案》创建了世界上第一个低碳电力市场。我们在低碳领域正吸引创记录金额的投资,而且我们的低碳行业正蓬勃发展。
The 2008 Climate Change Act was the world’s first long-term, legally binding national framework for reducing emissions. Our five year carbon budgets – that will eventually reach out to 2050 – are now being looked at as a potential model in other countries. The 2013 Energy Act is creating the world’s first low-carbon electricity market. And we are attracting record amounts of investment in renewables and our low carbon business sector is booming.

巴黎之路 The path to Paris
我们的愿景是在巴黎达成能够反映环境和经济现状的成功协议。这反映了各国作出贡献的能力,与其工业发展和人民生活水平息息相关。我们需要的协议是可信且公平,包含所有国家的减排行动,但承诺能反映各国的减排能力。
Our vision is of a successful agreement in Paris that reflects the environmental and economic realities. That reflects individual countries ability to make contributions, is sensitive to their industrial development and the standard of living of its people. We need an agreement that is credible – and fair – with emissions reductions from all countries – but with commitments that reflect the ability of countries to make reductions.

最先进的经济体必须作出最宏伟的承诺——反映其排放责任以及吸收变化的能力。
The most advanced economies have to make the most ambitious commitments – reflecting their responsibility for emissions and their capacity to absorb change.

欧盟应于今年同意宏伟的2030框架,境内排放降低至少40%的目标,以起到表率作用。七国集团和二十国集团应效仿——这样当我们抵达巴黎时,不必担惊受怕并且清楚知道谈判内容。
The EU should show a lead by agreeing this year an ambitious 2030 framework with a domestic target of at least 40%. The G7 and G20 should follow suit – so that by the time we reach Paris, there are no surprises and we are clear about what is on the table.

全球协议需要基于规则的体系,以跟踪进度、创建信任并可让我们逐步提升目标,与科学相适应。
A global agreement needs a rules-based system that tracks progress, creates trust and allows us ratchet up ambitions to meet the science.

我们必须动员支持最贫穷的国家,以确保气候变化行动和发展能够齐头并进。
We must mobilise support for the poorest countries so that there is no doubt that climate change action and development can go hand in hand.

最重要的是,我们需要坚持政治意愿,确保在巴黎气候大会上达成协议。并且我们需要在巴黎气候大会后,保持这股势头。因为巴黎气候大会不是道路的终点。这是跨时代的挑战,将需要连续几代政治领导更新其承诺。
Above all else, we will need to maintain the political will to secure an agreement in Paris. And we will need to sustain momentum after Paris too. Because Paris is not the end of the road. This is an inter-generational challenge that will require successive political generations to renew their commitment.

更多信息 Further information:
巴黎2015:达成全球气候变化协议方能永葆繁荣 Paris 2015: Securing our Prosperity through a Global Climate Change Agreement

如您需了解更多相关信息,敬请联系葛垚(电子邮箱:grace.ge@fco.gov.uk, 电话:021-32792046),如需退订,请邮件联系人,谢谢!"







https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/353113/HMG_Paris2015_FINAL_VERSION_WEB.pdf
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But counsel, you'll say, is not of least concern in matters of war. In a general I grant it; but this thing of war is not part of philosophy, but managed by parasites, panders, thieves, cutthroats, plowmen, sots, spendthrifts, and such other dregs of mankind, not philosophers; who how unapt they are even for common converse, let Socrates, whom the oracle of Apollo, though not so wisely, judged "the wisest of all men living," be witness; who stepping up to speak somewhat, I know not what, in public was forced to come down again well laughed at for his pains.
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